La vie, extraordinaire et digne d'un conte de fées, des trois brillantes soeurs Song, figures dominantes de la Chine du 20e siècle : l'aînée, Ailing, épousa un puissant homme d'affaires chinois, la seconde, Qingling, le "Père de la patrie" Sun Yat-sen et la troisième, Meiling, le généralissime Chiang Kai-shek. Une fresque enlevée des jeux du pouvoir et de l'amour dans le tourbillon d'un siècle de transformation et de révolution chinoises par l'auteure anglaise consacrée des Cygnes sauvages et de la biographie monumentale de Mao, l'histoire inconnue.
La concubine qui fit entrer la Chine dans la modernité
À l'âge de seize ans, Cixi fut retenue parmi les nombreuses compagnes de l'empereur comme concubine royale. À la mort de celui-ci en 1861, leur fils de cinq ans lui succéda sur le trône. Cixi organisa aussitôt avec la complicité de l'impératrice officielle qui elle n'avait pas d'héritier mâle, un coup d'état qui fit d'elle la véritable souveraine de la Chine.
Sous sa férule, cet antique pays se dota d'à peu près tout ce qui caractérise un état moderne : des industries, des chemins de fer, l'électricité, le télégraphe, sans oublier une armée et une marine équipées à la pointe du progrès. Et ce fut elle qui abolit d'atroces châtiments tels que « la mort des mille coupures » et mit un terme au bandage des pieds.
Elle dut faire face à des crises nationales décisives : la rébellion des Boxers, les guerres contre la France et le Japon, l'invasion de huit puissances alliées, dont la Grande-Bretagne, l'Allemagne, la Russie et les États-Unis.
Jung Chang propulse le lecteur au coeur du splendide Palais d'Été et du harem de la cité interdite où Cixi vivait entourée d'eunuques. Elle évoque avec un art consommé du récit, qui a contribué au succès planétaire des Cygnes sauvages, un monde révolu avec un luxe de détails fascinants, dignes d'une superproduction cinématographique.
Traduit de l'anglais par Marie Boudewyn
Few books have had such an impact as Wild Swans: a popular bestseller which has sold more than 13 million copies and a critically acclaimed history of China; a tragic tale of nightmarish cruelty and an uplifting story of bravery and survival.
From the bestselling author of Wild Swans and Mao: The Unknown StoryIn this groundbreaking biography, Jung Chang vividly describes how Empress Dowager Cixi - the most important woman in Chinese history - brought a medieval empire into the modern age. Under her, the ancient country attained virtually all the attributes of a modern state and it was she who abolished gruesome punishments like 'death by a thousand cuts' and put an end to foot-binding. Jung Chang comprehensively overturns the conventional view of Cixi as a diehard conservative and cruel despot andalso takes the reader into the depths of her splendid Summer Palace and the harem of Beijing's Forbidden City, where she lived surrounded by eunuchs - with one of whom she fell in love, with tragic consequences.Packed with drama, fast-paced and gripping, it is both a panoramic depiction of the birth of modern China and an intimate portrait of a woman: as the concubine to a monarch, as the absolute ruler of a third of the world's population, and as a unique stateswoman.'Powerful' Simon Sebag Montefiore'Truly authoritative' New York Times'Wonderful' Sunday TimesShortlisted for the James Tait Black Biography Prize
Jung Chang's Wild Swans was an extraordinary bestseller throughout the world, selling more than 10 million copies and reaching a wider readership than any other book about China. Now she and her husband Jon Halliday have written a groundbreaking biography of Mao Tse-tung. Based on a decade of research, and on interviews with many of Mao's close circle in China who have never talked before - and with virtually everyone outside China who had significant dealings with him - this is the most authoritative life of Mao ever written. It is full of startling revelations, exploding the myth of the Long March, and showing a completely unknown Mao: he was not driven by idealism or ideology; his intimate and intricate relationship with Stalin went back to the 1920s, ultimately bringing him to power; he welcomed Japanese occupation of much of China; and he schemed, poisoned and blackmailed to get his way. After Mao conquered China in 1949, his secret goal was to dominate the world. In chasing this dream he caused the deaths of 38 million people in the greatest famine in history. In all, well over 70 million Chinese perished under Mao's rule - in peacetime. Combining meticulous history with the story-telling style of Wild Swans, this biography makes immediate Mao's roller-coaster life, as he intrigued and fought every step of the way to force through his unpopular decisions. The reader enters the shadowy chambers of Mao's court, and eavesdrops on the drama in its hidden recesses. Mao's character and the enormity of his behaviour towards his wives, mistresses and children are unveiled for the first time. This is an entirely fresh look at Mao in both content and approach. It will astonish historians and the general reader alike.
From a coauthor of the best-selling Mao: The Unknown Story, the dramatic, epic biography of the woman who ruled China for fifty years, overcoming centuries of traditions and formalities--and found ways to modernize China, exposing its culture to western political ideas and technology.
Empress Dowager Cixi led an intense and singular life. Chosen at the age of twelve to be a concubine by the Emperor Xianfeng, she gives birth to his only male heir, who at four years old is designated emperor when his father dies in 1861. Enlisting the help of Xianfeng's widow, Cixi orchestrates a coup that ousts the appointed regents and makes herself the regent on behalf of her son. Her son ends up dying in his mid-twenties and Cixi is able to designate a young nephew as the emperor--continuing her reign, which stretches to her death in 1908. In this remarkable chronicle, Chang gives us a portrait of Cixi that is complex and riveting: her ruthlessness in fighting off rivals; her startling curiosity to learn all she can, not only about China (she is not allowed to leave the court compound); her reliance on her advisers and officials, often Westerners who she has placed in key positions of responsibility; and her sensitivity and desire to preserve the distinctiveness of China's past. Chang makes a compelling case that Cixi was one of the most formidable--and enlightened--rulers of a nation.
Singular perturbations occur when a small coefficient affects the highest order derivatives in a system of partial differential equations. From the physical point of view singular perturbations generate in the system under consideration thin layers located often but not always at the boundary of the domains that are called boundary layers or internal layers if the layer is located inside the domain. Important physical phenomena occur in boundary layers. The most common boundary layers appear in fluid mechanics, e.g., the flow of air around an airfoil or a whole airplane, or the flow of air around a car. Also in many instances in geophysical fluid mechanics, like the interface of air and earth, or air and ocean. This self-contained monograph is devoted to the study of certain classes of singular perturbation problems mostly related to thermic, fluid mechanics and optics and where mostly elliptic or parabolic equations in a bounded domain are considered.
This book is a fairly unique resource regarding the rigorous mathematical treatment of boundary layer problems. The explicit methodology developed in this book extends in many different directions the concept of correctors initially introduced by J. L. Lions, and in particular the lower- and higher-order error estimates of asymptotic expansions are obtained in the setting of functional analysis. The review of differential geometry and treatment of boundary layers in a curved domain is an additional strength of this book. In the context of fluid mechanics, the outstanding open problem of the vanishing viscosity limit of the Navier-Stokes equations is investigated in this book and solved for a number of particular, but physically relevant cases.This book will serve as a unique resource for those studying singular perturbations and boundary layer problems at the advanced graduate level in mathematics or applied mathematics and may be useful for practitioners in other related fields in science and engineering such as aerodynamics, fluid mechanics, geophysical fluid mechanics, acoustics and optics.